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Pyramid of Gold. Age of Egypt. Pharaoh's Empire. Octavian engaged in a war of propaganda, forced Antony's allies in the Roman Senate to flee Rome in 32 BC, and declared war on Cleopatra.

When Cleopatra learned that Octavian planned to bring her to his Roman triumphal procession, she killed herself by poisoning contrary to the popular belief that she was bitten by an asp.

Cleopatra's legacy survives in ancient and modern works of art. Roman historiography and Latin poetry produced a generally critical view of the queen that pervaded later Medieval and Renaissance literature.

In the visual arts, her ancient depictions include Roman busts , paintings , and sculptures , cameo carvings and glass , Ptolemaic and Roman coinage , and reliefs.

In Renaissance and Baroque art she was the subject of many works including operas , paintings, poetry, sculptures, and theatrical dramas. She has become a pop culture icon of Egyptomania since the Victorian era , and in modern times Cleopatra has appeared in the applied and fine arts, burlesque satire, Hollywood films, and brand images for commercial products.

Ptolemaic pharaohs were crowned by the Egyptian High Priest of Ptah at Memphis , but resided in the multicultural and largely Greek city of Alexandria , established by Alexander the Great of Macedon.

Roman interventionism in Egypt predated the reign of Cleopatra. He distinguished himself by preventing Ptolemy XII from massacring the inhabitants of Pelousion , and for rescuing the body of Archelaos , the husband of Berenice IV, after he was killed in battle, ensuring him a proper royal burial.

Gabinius was put on trial in Rome for abusing his authority, for which he was acquitted, but his second trial for accepting bribes led to his exile, from which he was recalled seven years later in 48 BC by Caesar.

Ptolemy XII died sometime before 22 March 51 BC, when Cleopatra, in her first act as queen, began her voyage to Hermonthis , near Thebes , to install a new sacred Buchis bull, worshiped as an intermediary for the god Montu in the Ancient Egyptian religion.

These included famine caused by drought and a low level of the annual flooding of the Nile , and lawless behavior instigated by the Gabiniani, the now unemployed and assimilated Roman soldiers left by Gabinius to garrison Egypt.

In 50 BC Marcus Calpurnius Bibulus , proconsul of Syria, sent his two eldest sons to Egypt, most likely to negotiate with the Gabiniani and recruit them as soldiers in the desperate defense of Syria against the Parthians.

Despite Cleopatra's rejection of him, Ptolemy XIII still retained powerful allies, notably the eunuch Potheinos , his childhood tutor, regent, and administrator of his properties.

Ptolemy XIII arrived at Alexandria at the head of his army, in clear defiance of Caesar's demand that he disband and leave his army before his arrival.

When Ptolemy XIII realized that his sister was in the palace consorting directly with Caesar, he attempted to rouse the populace of Alexandria into a riot, but he was arrested by Caesar, who used his oratorical skills to calm the frenzied crowd.

Judging that this agreement favored Cleopatra over Ptolemy XIII and that the latter's army of 20,, including the Gabiniani, could most likely defeat Caesar's army of 4, unsupported troops, Potheinos decided to have Achillas lead their forces to Alexandria to attack both Caesar and Cleopatra.

Ptolemy XIII tried to flee by boat, but it capsized, and he drowned. Theodotus was found years later in Asia, by Marcus Junius Brutus , and executed.

Caesar's term as consul had expired at the end of 48 BC. Caesar is alleged to have joined Cleopatra for a cruise of the Nile and sightseeing of Egyptian monuments , [] [] [] although this may be a romantic tale reflecting later well-to-do Roman proclivities and not a real historical event.

Caesarion , Cleopatra's alleged child with Caesar, was born 23 June 47 BC and was originally named "Pharaoh Caesar", as preserved on a stele at the Serapeum in Memphis.

Cleopatra's presence in Rome most likely had an effect on the events at the Lupercalia festival a month before Caesar's assassination.

Octavian, Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus formed the Second Triumvirate in 43 BC, in which they were each elected for five-year terms to restore order in the Republic and bring Caesar's assassins to justice.

By the end of 42 BC, Octavian had gained control over much of the western half of the Roman Republic and Antony the eastern half, with Lepidus largely marginalized.

Cleopatra carefully chose Antony as her partner for producing further heirs, as he was deemed to be the most powerful Roman figure following Caesar's demise.

Mark Antony's Parthian campaign in the east was disrupted by the events of the Perusine War 41—40 BC , initiated by his ambitious wife Fulvia against Octavian in the hopes of making her husband the undisputed leader of Rome.

Antony summoned Cleopatra to Antioch to discuss pressing issues, such as Herod's kingdom and financial support for his Parthian campaign.

In this arrangement Cleopatra gained significant former Ptolemaic territories in the Levant, including nearly all of Phoenicia Lebanon minus Tyre and Sidon , which remained in Roman hands.

Antony's enlargement of the Ptolemaic realm by relinquishing directly controlled Roman territory was exploited by his rival Octavian, who tapped into the public sentiment in Rome against the empowerment of a foreign queen at the expense of their Republic.

Antony's Parthian campaign in 36 BC turned into a complete debacle for a number of reasons, in particular the betrayal of Artavasdes II of Armenia , who defected to the Parthian side.

As Antony prepared for another Parthian expedition in 35 BC, this time aimed at their ally Armenia , Octavia traveled to Athens with 2, troops in alleged support of Antony, but most likely in a scheme devised by Octavian to embarrass him for his military losses.

Dellius was sent as Antony's envoy to Artavasdes II in 34 BC to negotiate a potential marriage alliance that would wed the Armenian king's daughter to Alexander Helios, the son of Antony and Cleopatra.

In an event held at the gymnasium soon after the triumph, Cleopatra dressed as Isis and declared that she was the Queen of Kings with her son Caesarion, King of Kings , while Alexander Helios was declared king of Armenia, Media , and Parthia, and two-year-old Ptolemy Philadelphos was declared king of Syria and Cilicia.

Octavian wanted to publicize it for propaganda purposes, but the two consuls, both supporters of Antony, had it censored from public view.

In late 34 BC, Antony and Octavian engaged in a heated war of propaganda that would last for years. A papyrus document dated to February 33 BC, later used to wrap a mummy , contains the signature of Cleopatra, probably written by an official authorized to sign for her.

Antony and Cleopatra traveled together to Ephesus in 32 BC, where she provided him with of the naval ships he was able to acquire.

During the spring of 32 BC Antony and Cleopatra traveled to Athens, where she persuaded Antony to send Octavia an official declaration of divorce.

Antony and Cleopatra had a larger fleet than Octavian, but the crews of Antony and Cleopatra's navy were not all well-trained, some of them perhaps from merchant vessels, whereas Octavian had a fully professional force.

Cleopatra and Antony had the support of various allied kings, but Cleopatra had already been in conflict with Herod, and an earthquake in Judea provided him with an excuse to be absent from the campaign.

Lucius Pinarius , Mark Antony's appointed governor of Cyrene, received word that Octavian had won the Battle of Actium before Antony's messengers could arrive at his court.

Cleopatra perhaps started to view Antony as a liability by the late summer of 31 BC, when she prepared to leave Egypt to her son Caesarion.

Cleopatra had Caesarion enter into the ranks of the ephebi , which, along with reliefs on a stele from Koptos dated 21 September 31 BC, demonstrated that Cleopatra was now grooming her son to become the sole ruler of Egypt.

After lengthy negotiations that ultimately produced no results, Octavian set out to invade Egypt in the spring of 30 BC, [] stopping at Ptolemais in Phoenicia , where his new ally Herod provided his army with fresh supplies.

Octavian entered Alexandria, occupied the palace, and seized Cleopatra's three youngest children.

Cleopatra decided in her last moments to send Caesarion away to Upper Egypt, perhaps with plans to flee to Kushite Nubia , Ethiopia, or India.

Following the tradition of Macedonian rulers , Cleopatra ruled Egypt and other territories such as Cyprus as an absolute monarch , serving as the sole lawgiver of her kingdom.

Although almost 50 ancient works of Roman historiography mention Cleopatra, these often include only terse accounts of the Battle of Actium, her suicide, and Augustan propaganda about her personal deficiencies.

Cleopatra is barely mentioned in De Bello Alexandrino , the memoirs of an unknown staff officer who served under Caesar.

Cleopatra's gender has perhaps led to her depiction as a minor if not insignificant figure in ancient, medieval, and even modern historiography about ancient Egypt and the Greco-Roman world.

Cleopatra was depicted in various ancient works of art, in the Egyptian as well as Hellenistic-Greek and Roman styles. For instance, a large gilded bronze statue of Cleopatra once existed inside the Temple of Venus Genetrix in Rome, the first time that a living person had their statue placed next to that of a deity in a Roman temple.

Since the s scholars have debated whether or not the Esquiline Venus —discovered in on the Esquiline Hill in Rome and housed in the Palazzo dei Conservatori of the Capitoline Museums —is a depiction of Cleopatra, based on the statue's hairstyle and facial features , apparent royal diadem worn over the head, and the uraeus Egyptian cobra wrapped around the base.

Surviving coinage of Cleopatra's reign include specimens from every regnal year, from 51 to 30 BC. The inscriptions on the coins are written in Greek, but also in the nominative case of Roman coins rather than the genitive case of Greek coins, in addition to having the letters placed in a circular fashion along the edges of the coin instead of across it horizontally or vertically as was customary for Greek ones.

Various coins, such as a silver tetradrachm minted sometime after Cleopatra's marriage with Antony in 37 BC, depict her wearing a royal diadem and a 'melon' hairstyle.

Of the surviving Greco-Roman-style busts and heads of Cleopatra, [note 66] the sculpture known as the " Berlin Cleopatra ", located in the Antikensammlung Berlin collection at the Altes Museum, possesses her full nose, whereas the head known as the " Vatican Cleopatra ", located in the Vatican Museums, is damaged with a missing nose.

Other possible sculpted depictions of Cleopatra include one in the British Museum , London, made of limestone, which perhaps only depicts a woman in her entourage during her trip to Rome.

Roller speculates that the British Museum head, along with those in the Egyptian Museum , Cairo, the Capitoline Museums, and in the private collection of Maurice Nahmen, while having similar facial features and hairstyles as the Berlin portrait but lacking a royal diadem, most likely represent members of the royal court or even Roman women imitating Cleopatra's popular hairstyle.

Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over her head, now in the Vatican Museums [1] [3] [].

Cleopatra, mid-1st century BC, showing Cleopatra with a "melon" hairstyle and Hellenistic royal diadem worn over the head, now in the Altes Museum [1] [3] [].

Another painting from Pompeii , dated to the early 1st century AD and located in the House of Giuseppe II, contains a possible depiction of Cleopatra with her son Caesarion, both wearing royal diadems while she reclines and consumes poison in an act of suicide.

In a now lost encaustic painting was discovered in the Temple of Serapis at Hadrian's Villa , near Tivoli, Lazio , Italy, that depicted Cleopatra committing suicide with an asp biting her bare chest.

The Portland Vase , a Roman cameo glass vase dated to the Augustan period and now in the British Museum, includes a possible depiction of Cleopatra with Antony.

In modern times Cleopatra has become an icon of popular culture , [] a reputation shaped by theatrical representations dating back to the Renaissance as well as paintings and films.

Cleopatra appeared in miniatures for illuminated manuscripts , such as a depiction of her and Antony lying in a Gothic-style tomb by the Boucicaut Master in In the performing arts , the death of Elizabeth I of England in , and the German publication in of alleged letters of Cleopatra, inspired Samuel Daniel to alter and republish his play Cleopatra in In Victorian Britain , Cleopatra was highly associated with many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture and her image was used to market various household products, including oil lamps, lithographs , postcards and cigarettes.

Burnand 's Antony and Cleopatra offered satirical depictions of the queen connecting her and the environment she lived in with the modern age.

Whereas myths about Cleopatra persist in popular media, important aspects of her career go largely unnoticed, such as her command of naval forces, administrative acts, and publications on ancient Greek medicine.

Rowland, who highlights that the "Berenice called Cleopatra" cited by the 3rd- or 4th-century female Roman physician Metrodora was likely conflated by medieval scholars as referring to Cleopatra.

Cleopatra belonged to the Macedonian Greek dynasty of the Ptolemies , [8] [] [] [note 76] their European origins tracing back to northern Greece.

Cleopatra I Syra was the only member of the Ptolemaic dynasty known for certain to have introduced some non-Greek ancestry, being a descendant of Apama , the Sogdian Iranian wife of Seleucus I.

Roller speculates that Cleopatra could have been the daughter of a theoretical half-Macedonian-Greek, half-Egyptian woman from Memphis in northern Egypt belonging to a family of priests dedicated to Ptah a hypothesis not generally accepted in scholarship , [note 84] but contends that whatever Cleopatra's ancestry, she valued her Greek Ptolemaic heritage the most.

Claims that Cleopatra was an illegitimate child never appeared in Roman propaganda against her. For other uses, see Cleopatra disambiguation.

Unlocated tomb probably in Egypt. Main article: Early life of Cleopatra. Further information: First Triumvirate.

Main articles: Early life of Cleopatra and Reign of Cleopatra. Left: Cleopatra dressed as a pharaoh and presenting offerings to the goddess Isis , on a limestone stele dedicated by a Greek man named Onnophris, dated 51 BC, and located in the Louvre , Paris.

Main article: Reign of Cleopatra. Further information: Liberators' civil war. Main articles: Donations of Alexandria and Reign of Cleopatra.

Main articles: Battle of Actium and Reign of Cleopatra. Main article: Death of Cleopatra.

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