Czech Have 2. Constitutional framework, state of emergency and various types of crisis measures
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Although Czech has a periphrastic passive construction like English , in colloquial style, word-order changes frequently replace the passive voice.
Pavla is in the accusative case , the grammatical object of the verb. A word at the end of a clause is typically emphasized, unless an upward intonation indicates that the sentence is a question: .
In modern Czech syntax, adjectives precede nouns,  with few exceptions. As with other adjectives, it agrees with its associated noun in gender, number and case.
Relative clauses follow the noun they modify. The following is a glossed example: . In Czech, nouns and adjectives are declined into one of seven grammatical cases which indicate their function in a sentence, two numbers singular and plural and three genders masculine, feminine and neuter.
The masculine gender is further divided into animate and inanimate classes. A nominative—accusative language , Czech marks subject nouns of transitive and intransitive verbs in the nominative case, which is the form found in dictionaries, and direct objects of transitive verbs are declined in the accusative case.
When Czech children learn their language's declension patterns, the cases are referred to by number: . Some Czech grammatical texts order the cases differently, grouping the nominative and accusative and the dative and locative together because those declension patterns are often identical; this order accommodates learners with experience in other inflected languages, such as Latin or Russian.
This order is nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, locative, instrumental and vocative. Some prepositions require the nouns they modify to take a particular case.
The cases assigned by each preposition are based on the physical or metaphorical direction, or location, conveyed by it. For example, od from, away from and z out of, off assign the genitive case.
Other prepositions take one of several cases, with their meaning dependent on the case; na means "onto" or "for" with the accusative case, but "on" with the locative.
Czech distinguishes three genders —masculine, feminine, and neuter—and the masculine gender is subdivided into animate and inanimate.
Nouns are also inflected for number , distinguishing between singular and plural. Typical of a Slavic language, Czech cardinal numbers one through four allow the nouns and adjectives they modify to take any case, but numbers over five require subject and direct object noun phrases to be declined in the genitive plural instead of the nominative or accusative, and when used as subjects these phrases take singular verbs.
For example: . Numbers decline for case, and the numbers one and two are also inflected for gender. Numbers one through five are shown below as examples.
The number one has declension patterns identical to those of the demonstrative pronoun ten. Although Czech's grammatical numbers are singular and plural , several residuals of dual forms remain, such as the words dva "two" and oba "both" , which decline the same way.
While two of these nouns are neuter in their singular forms, all plural forms are considered feminine; their gender is relevant to their associated adjectives and verbs.
The plural number paradigms of these nouns are a mixture of historical dual and plural forms. Czech verbs agree with their subjects in person first, second or third , number singular or plural , and in constructions involving participles also in gender.
They are conjugated for tense past, present or future and mood indicative , imperative or conditional. Typical of Slavic languages, Czech marks its verbs for one of two grammatical aspects : perfective and imperfective.
Most verbs are part of inflected aspect pairs—for example, koupit perfective and kupovat imperfective. Although the verbs' meaning is similar, in perfective verbs the action is completed and in imperfective verbs it is ongoing or repeated.
This is distinct from past and present tense. The verbs of most aspect pairs differ in one of two ways: by prefix or by suffix.
The most common prefixes are na- , o- , po- , s- , u- , vy- , z- and za-. The present tense in Czech is formed by adding an ending which agrees with the person and number of the subject at the end of the verb stem.
As Czech is a null-subject language , the subject pronoun can be omitted unless it is needed for clarity. In some contexts, the present tense of perfective verbs which differs from the English present perfect implies future action; in others, it connotes habitual action.
Czech verbs have three grammatical moods : indicative , imperative and conditional. This mood indicates hypothetical events and can also be used to express wishes.
Most Czech verbs fall into one of five classes , which determine their conjugation patterns. Examples of the present tense of each class and some common irregular verbs follow in the tables below: .
Czech has one of the most phonemic orthographies of all European languages. Its thirty-one graphemes represent thirty sounds in most dialects, i and y have the same sound , and it contains only one digraph : ch , which follows h in the alphabet.
The characters q , w and x appear only in foreign words. Czech typographical features not associated with phonetics generally resemble those of most European languages that use the Latin script , including English.
Proper nouns , honorifics , and the first letters of quotations are capitalized , and punctuation is typical of other Latin European languages.
Writing of ordinal numerals is similar to most European languages. The Czech language uses a decimal comma instead of a decimal point.
When writing a long number, spaces between every three digits, including those in decimal places, may be used for better orientation in handwritten texts.
The number 1,, Jungmann used vocabulary of the Bible of Kralice — period and of the language used by his contemporaries. He borrowed words not present in Czech from other Slavic languages or created neologisms.
The most recent reform took place in Other Bohemian regional dialects have become marginalized, while Moravian dialects remain more widespread and diverse, with a political movement for Moravian linguistic revival active since the s.
This is an academic distinction; most Czechs are unaware of the term or associate it with deformed or "incorrect" Czech.
Common Czech has become ubiquitous in most parts of the Czech Republic since the later 20th century. It is usually defined as an interdialect used in common speech in Bohemia and western parts of Moravia by about two thirds of all inhabitants of the Czech Republic.
Common Czech is not codified , but some of its elements have become adopted in the written standard. Since the second half of the 20th century, Common Czech elements have also been spreading to regions previously unaffected, as a consequence of media influence.
Standard Czech is still the norm for politicians, businesspeople and other Czechs in formal situations, but Common Czech is gaining ground in journalism and the mass media.
Common Czech phonology is based on that of the Central Bohemian dialect group, which has a slightly different set of vowel phonemes to Standard Czech.
Non-standard morphological features that are more or less common among all Common Czech speakers include: . Apart from the Common Czech vernacular, there remain a variety of other Bohemian dialects, mostly in marginal rural areas.
Dialect use began to weaken in the second half of the 20th century, and by the early s regional dialect use was stigmatized, associated with the shrinking lower class and used in literature or other media for comedic effect.
Increased travel and media availability to dialect-speaking populations has encouraged them to shift to or add to their own dialect Standard Czech.
The Czech Statistical Office in recognized the following Bohemian dialects: . As of , 62, Czech citizens spoke Moravian as their first language and 45, were diglossic speaking Moravian and standard Czech as first languages.
Beginning in the sixteenth century, some varieties of Czech resembled Slovak;  the southeastern Moravian dialects, in particular, are sometimes considered dialects of Slovak rather than Czech.
These dialects form a continuum between the Czech and Slovak languages,  using the same declension patterns for nouns and pronouns and the same verb conjugations as Slovak.
The Czech Statistical Office in recognized the following Moravian dialects: . Czech and Slovak have been considered mutually intelligible ; speakers of either language can communicate with greater ease than those of any other pair of West Slavic languages.
Since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia , mutual intelligibility has declined for younger speakers, probably because Czech speakers now experience less exposure to Slovak and vice versa.
In phonetic differences, Czech is characterized by a glottal stop before initial vowels and Slovak by its less-frequent use of long vowels than Czech;  however, Slovak has long forms of the consonants r and l when they function as vowels.
One study showed that Czech and Slovak lexicons differed by 80 percent, but this high percentage was found to stem primarily from differing orthographies and slight inconsistencies in morphological formation;  Slovak morphology is more regular when changing from the nominative to the locative case , Pra h a becomes Pra z e in Czech and Pra h e in Slovak.
The two lexicons are generally considered similar, with most differences found in colloquial vocabulary and some scientific terminology.
Slovak has slightly more borrowed words than Czech. Standard written Slovak was partially modeled on literary Czech, and Czech was preferred for some official functions in the Slovak half of the republic.
When the Axis powers lost the war and Czechoslovakia reformed, Slovak developed somewhat on its own with Czech influence ; during the Prague Spring of , Slovak gained independence from and equality with Czech,  due to the transformation of Czechoslovakia from a unitary state to a federation.
Since the dissolution of Czechoslovakia in , "Czechoslovak" has referred to improvised pidgins of the languages which have arisen from the decrease in mutual intelligibility.
Czech vocabulary derives primarily from Slavic, Baltic and other Indo-European roots. Although most verbs have Balto-Slavic origins, pronouns, prepositions and some verbs have wider, Indo-European roots.
Most Czech loanwords originated in one of two time periods. More recent loanwords derive primarily from English and French ,  and also from Hebrew , Arabic and Persian.
Many Russian loanwords, principally animal names and naval terms, also exist in Czech. Although older German loanwords were colloquial, recent borrowings from other languages are associated with high culture.
English: "All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. West Slavic language spoken in the Czech Republic. Language family. Writing system. Further information: Czech-Slovak languages and West Slavic languages.
Main article: History of the Czech language. See also: History of the Czech lands. See also: Czech National Revival. See also: Czech American and Czech Texan.
Main article: Czech phonology. See also: Czech word order. Main article: Czech declension. Main article: Czech conjugation. See also: Grammatical aspect in Slavic languages.
Main article: Morphological classification of Czech verbs. Main article: Czech orthography. See also: Czech Braille.
Further information: Czech—Slovak languages. Further information: Chod dialect. Main article: Moravian dialects. Further information: Lach dialects.
See also: List of English words of Czech origin. Czech Republic portal Language portal. Glottolog 3. Retrieved 6 January Russian Linguistics. A grammar of contemporary Polish.
Bloomington, Ind. University of Tübingen. Retrieved August 9, June Retrieved July 25, Language Knowledge. Retrieved July 23, Archived from the original PDF on July 26, Retrieved July 26, People at high risk should work from home.
Those at 70 years of age and older are encourages to stay at home. All individuals in the Czech Republic outside of their home MUST cover mouth and nose with either a protective medical mask, self-made mask, or a scarf.
The Czech government has banned going anywhere in public without such cover and has imposed several fines for violating the ban in several cases.
People should also maintain a safe distance of at least two meters. On April 6, the Czech Government decided to begin lifting some of the quarantine restrictions: sports facilities will re-open on April 7, ; DIY stores, hardware stores and bike shops on April 9, In addition, effective April 7, , people will not be required to wear masks during outdoor sports in nature, such as biking and jogging.
Only individuals older than 65 years and disabled individuals older than 50 years can shop between 8am and 10am in large supermarkets and stores.
Shopping at other times in large stores and shopping at any time in smaller stores is not subject to restrictions. Several online sources provide delivery of groceries, including www.
Several online sources provide delivery from restaurants to homes, including www. Public transportation continues to operate with limits on the number of people per vehicle.
Larger cities such as Prague, Brno and Ostrava have announced that they will be disinfecting trams and buses on a daily basis and in Prague all metro and tram doors will automatically open at all stops.
It is no longer possible to purchase bus tickets directly from drivers, tickets must be purchased beforehand. Restaurants and bars have been closed since March 12 and will remain closed until April Purchase of food and drinks is still available at many stores that sell food over the counter e.
Travel restrictions will remain in place until further notice. As of March 16, all foreigners without permanent or long-term residence permit to reside for more than 90 days are prohibited from entering the Czech Republic.
Also, citizens of the Czech Republic and foreigners with a permanent or temporary stay of over 90 days are prohibited from leaving the Czech Republic.
As of March 31, individuals who are allowed to enter the Czech Republic must remain in self-isolation for 14 days. Czech citizens who are not covered by the exceptions clarified by the Ministry of Interior are prohibited from traveling.
Borders will remain closed until further notice. Starting on March 26, Czech Ministry of Interior has new rules regarding border crossings by cross-border workers.
For more information, see www. For transportation information to get Czech citizens into the Czech Republic, go to www.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs recommends you check with airlines directly regarding the cancellation of connecting flights.